Semua soal diambil dari materi Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial pada buku paket kurikulum edisi Bagi guru atau siswa yang membutuhkan presentasi powerpoint Pengaruh Hindu-Budha pada masyarakat Indonesia bisa didownload di sini. Kebudayaan Hindu Budha berasal dari negara Teori apa yang menyatakan bahwa kebudayaan Hindu-Budha datang ke Indonesia dibawa oleh pedagang? Teori Arus Balik menyatakan bahwa Budaya Hindu Budha di bawah oleh kaum Brahmana. Kaum ksatria membawa budaya hindu Budha sampai ke Indonesia.
Budaya Hindu Budha dibawa oleh orang Indonesia sendiri yang belajar di India. Budaya Hindu Budha dibawa oleh pedagang yang melakukan perdagangan antara Indonesia dengan India. Pemilihan seorang raja pada Kerajaan Hindu Budha dilakukan secara Turun temurun. Para Pendeta dalam sistem kasta dalam kebudayaan Hindu Budha disebut Ahli yang mengungkapkan pernyataan tentang masuknya kebudayaan Hindu Budha yang disebarkan oleh golongan Brahmana adalah Contoh perubahan pada pemerintahan setelah datangnya kebudayaan Hindu Budha adalah Adanya perubahan pemimpin dari kepala suku menjadi raja.
Raja dipilih secara langsung oleh rakyat. Pergantian raja berlangsung lima tahun sekali pada setiap periode. Rakyat bebas memilih siapa saja saja yang pantas memimpin kerajaan. Unsur asli Indonesia dalam pembuatan candi candi kebudayaan Hindu Budha yaitu Bentuk kesenian ukir yang dipahat di dinding candi Borobudur disebut Kerajaan Hindu-Budha pertama di Indonesia yaitu Pada zaman kerajaan Kutai terdapat peninggalan yang berupa Tugu batu yang mempunyai fungsi sebagai tugu peringatan, apa nama tugu batu tersebut?
Bukti bahwa kerajaan Kutai merupakan kerajaan yang makmur pada saat itu adalah Raja Mulawarman memberikan Kerajaan Kutai membangun sebuah sekolah untuk mempelajari kebudayaan yang sangat luas. Raja membuat saluran air untuk mengalirkan air ke sawah-sawah warga. Raja membuat pelabuhan yang sangat besar sebagai tempat bongkar muat perdagangan internasional. Kerajaan paling tua yang pernah berdiri di pulau Jawa adalah Nama raja yang paling terkenal dari kerajaan Tarumanegara yaitu Sebutkan 3 Prasasti yang berasal dari kerajaan Sriwijaya?
Terdapat dua dinasti dalam kerajaan Mataram Kuno yaitu Dinasti Sanjaya dan Dinasti Sailendra. Dinasti Sanjaya dan Dinasti Rakai Pikatan.Waxannan mahaifa nawa su ne suka xauki xawainiyar tarbiyyata har na kawo zuwa yanzu, Allah Ya jiqansu da gafararsa, ya kuma saka masu da Aljannar Firdausi, Amin. Bunza Main Supervisor Date. Usman Co-Supervisor i Date. Yanxaki A. Co-Supervisor II Date. Amfani Head of Deparment Date Prof. Bichi External Examiner Chairman of the Panel. Allah, na gode qwarai da, a yau, Ka ba ni ikon yin digiri na biyu a kan sanaar gardanci a qasar Hausa mai take: Gardancin Hausawa Jiya Da Yau.
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Ina kuma roqonKa gafara, da ka yafe mani duk wasu kurakurai, waxanda na tafka a cikin wannan aiki, domin aiki ne da ya tavo harkar ilimin addinin musulunci. Ina miqa godiya ta musamman ga jagororin wannan aiki nawa. Da farko, akawi Farfesa Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza, wanda shi ne ya ba ni qarfin guiwar yin bincike a wannan fanni, ya kuma ci gaba da gwarzanta ni a lokacin da nake yin rubutun aikin. Shi kuwa Dakta Bello Bala Usman, ya fito mani da gyare-gyren da ya kamata a yin a wannan aiki, tun daga farkon shafi har zuwa na qarshe.
Farfesa Aminu Yanxaki kuwa ya fito da wasu alamurra waxanda ya ga babu su a cikin wannan aiki, ya 5. Hasali ma, shi ne ya sa aka sanya wani karin maganar da yake cewa: Kura ma ci tilawar gardi. Allah Ya saka maku da alherinsa, amin! Godiya mai tarin yawa nake sake miqawa ga malaman da suka koyar da ni, sannan kuma suka taimaka mani da littattafan da na yi amfani da su a wajen gudanar da wannan aiki.
A wajen miqa godiya ta, ba zan so in manta da mutanen da suka taimaka mani ba a wajen harkar ilimin da na samu na naura mai qwaqwalwa, wanda na yi amfani da shi na buga wannan aiki, kuma a sanadiyyar haka na zauna jarrabawar kwamfuta naaura mai. Waxannan kuwa sun haxa da Mrs. Daga qarshe, ina miqa godiya ta ga Mallam Mukhtar Xanbini, wanda ya xaukar mani duk hotunan da aka yi amfani da su a rataye. Sai kuma godiya ga duk waxanda suka yarda aka yi hira da su,suka kuma ba 6.
Allah ya saka maku da alherinsa. Gardanci sanaa ce ta nuna bajinta da bayar da magunguna, wadda ake yin amfani da ilimin addinin musulunci da na gargajiya. A cikin wannan kundi an yi bitar ayyukan da suka gabata masu alaqa da gardanci da hujjojin ci gaba da bincike da manufar bincike da wahalhalun aka ci karo da su a wajen bincike da kuma iyakancewar bincike. An kuma kawo asalin samuwar sanaoin gargajiya da alaqarsu da sanaar gardanci a qasar Hausa, kafin da bayan zuwan baqi da asalin samuwar kalmar gardi da sanaar gardanci.
An kuma kawo fasalin sanaar gardancin dabbobi da na karatu da na wando da na a-dak-buzu da bayani a kan matsayin sanaar gardanci a zamanin yau na zuwan Turawa da yawaitar ilimin addinin musulunci.
It is a research work on Hausa traditional occupations that provides human medicines, done by us of bravery and Islamic knowlege. The work contained the meaning and origin of gardanci traditional occupation, a review of releted literatures, reasons for further studies, aims and objectives of the study, difficulties encountered during the reasearch and scope of the study.He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas.
He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages the Saptarishis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Indian dynasty, see Kanva dynasty. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Hindu deities and texts.
Asuras Rakshasas Yakshas Vahanas. Hinduism Hindu mythology. Other Hindu sages. Categories : Hindu sages Hindu mythology stubs. Hidden categories: Articles lacking sources from December All articles lacking sources Use dmy dates from November Use Indian English from November All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
This Hindu mythology-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.The reason why this chapter does not contain Basmalah was questioned for centuries, and the conclusive answer came with the discovery of the code 19, prophesized in chapter See ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Those who abuse the Quranic statement "obey God and His messenger," to mean obeying the Quran and numerous books of hearsay, are convicted by this verse. By claiming that God is represented by the Quran, but the messenger is represented by hearsay collections produced centuries after Muhammed, they separate God and messenger from each other Verse attributes the ultimatum issued in this chapter to "God and His messenger.
Thus, we should use similar inferences when we see verses telling us to "obey God and His messenger. The messenger, on the Day of Judgmentwill reject those who distort, add to, and subtract from God's message by hearsay. It is also noteworthy that the verb used for God and His messenger in is in its singular form. Remind verse to the polytheists who wish to raise Muhammed from the position of messengership to the position of legislator next to God. Also, see The verse does not encourage muslims to attack those who associate partners to God, but to attack those who have violated the peace treaty and killed and terrorized people because of their belief and way of life.
According to verses andthe aggressive party has two ways to stop the war: reinstate the treaty for peace silmwhich is limited in scope; or accept the system of peace and submission to God islamwhich is comprehensive in scope; it includes observation of sala and purification through sharing one's blessings.
These two verses refer to the second alternative. When, accepting islam system of peace and submission as the second equally acceptable alternative and when the first alternative involves only making a temporary peace, then none can argue for coercion in promoting the Din. The Quran does not promote war, but encourages us to stand against aggressors on the side of peace and justice. War is permitted only in self-defense See ; ; ; ; We are encouraged to work hard to establish peace ; ; The Quranic precept promoting peace and justice is so fundamental that a peace treaty with the enemy is preferred to religious ties Please note that the context of the verse is about the War of Hunain, which was provoked by the enemy.
The verse is mistranslated by almost every translator. Furthermore, note that we suggest "reparation," which is the legal word for compensation for damages done by the aggressing party during the war, instead of the Arabic word jizya.
The meaning of jizya has been distorted as a perpetual tax on non-Muslims, which was invented long after Muhammed to further the imperialistic agenda of Sultans or Kings. The origin of the word that we translated as Compensation is JaZaYa, which simply means compensation, not tax.
Because of their aggression and initiation of a war against muslims and their allies, after the war, the allied community should require their enemies to compensate for the damage they inflicted on the peaceful community. Various derivatives of this word are used in the Quran frequently, and they are translated as "compensation" for a particular deed. Unfortunately, the distortion in the meaning of the verse above and the practice of collecting a special tax from Christians and Jews, contradicts the basic principle of the Quran that there should not be compulsion in religion and that there should be freedom of belief and expression ; ;; ; ; Since taxation based on religion creates financial duress on people to convert to the privileged religion, it violates this important Quranic principle.
See For a comparative discussion of this verse, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction. The Golden-plated Brazen Rule: Do unto others as they do unto you; and occasionally forgive them.
Empirical studies on groups have shown that the golden-plated brazen rule is the most efficient in reducing negative behaviors in a community abiding by the rule, since the rule has both deterrence and guiding components.
If the other party cheats or hurts the party adopting GTFT, then the GTFT-adopting party stops cooperation and retaliates, while demonstrating willingness to forgive the wrongdoing and start a new stage of cooperation. This positive tilt successfully leads the other party to seek cooperation of the GTF party and ultimately adopt the same rule of engagement.Wars are subject to the general principles spelled out in Also, see The Quran informs us that the practices of Islam were initially revealed to Abraham.
Abraham and his followers were observing the sala prayer Meccan polytheists never accepted that they were polytheists ; Since they believed in the intercession of some holy people, and since they falsely attributed numerous prohibitions and rules to God, the Quran considered them polytheists.
Those so-called Muslims who reverted to the belief and practices of the era of ignorance after the revelation of the Quran, tried to create some artificial differences between them and Meccan polytheists. They distorted the meaning of the verse into "their prayer is only clapping hands and whistles" so that Meccan polytheists will be seen to be bizarre and different.
The word muka means whistle, noise, or hypocrisy. The celebrated Arabic dictionary Lisan al-Arab, under the definition of this word, lists underground escape holes dug by moles. This resembles the word nafaqa hypocrisywhich relates a semantic relation between physical holes and abstract hypocrisy.
As for the word tasdiya, either means aversion or it is a form of tasdidah, which simply means repelling. In fact, the following verse uses its verb form, supporting our understanding. See Also, see chapter and verse The word sunna means "law," and there is only one valid sunna, God's sunna ; ; ; Muhammed could not have his own sunna law besides God's sunna in the Quran.
Distorting the meaning of this verse, Shiite clergymen have created an entitlement for themselves. The followers of Shiite sects donate one fifth of their annual income khumus to their religious leeches. See ; ; ; ; ; ; Traditional translations dilute the sufficiency of God by including those who acknowledge as the second subject besides God, rather than another object besides Muhammed.
They translate the verse as "God and the believers who follow you suffice for you. This verse prohibits slavery. Prisoners of war are released after the war ends Also, see ; This verse unequivocally states that the rule of law is above any other affiliation.
Islam emphasizes the importance of the rule of law, justice and peace Al-Baqarah The Heifer 3. Younus Jonah Yousuf Joseph Al-Ra'ad Thunder Al-Hijr Al-Hijr Valley Al-Nahl The Bee The lasta type shows high branching, whereas the saguia type is characterized by few branching and its more erected growth. Hermaphrodite consists of both the stamen and the pistils. Another flower type are the pistillate flowers, which have pistils, but no stamens.
The third type of flower are male sterile flowers. The fruits are small and dark, which contain brown or black seed with a diameter of 0. Since it is rich in calories and proteins, local people take it on long travels. The cooking and extrusion technology tests have already shown successful results in several countries.
This technology present numerous advantages such as low cost, simple operation, moderate production volume, minimum auxiliary equipment, versatility, good sanitary conditions and easy management. Boiling, however, was found to increase zinc, iron and calcium dialyzability.
The protein content The lipids consist mainly of unsaturated fatty acids. The plant was often cultivated in South America in the past.
More than varieties are known in Bolivia, but only twenty are still in use, with a majority of farmers cultivating just one. Adult plants are also resistant to night frosts. The plant has resistance to strong winds, heavy rainfalls, most pests and diseases, and even prolonged drought periods.
In intensive systems, yields of 2—3 t can be obtained. The crop was experimentally produced in Finland and showed good results. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of plant. Archived from the original on Retrieved Mol Nutr Food Res.
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Economic Botany. D Neglected crops from a different perspective. Rome: FAO. Espinoza; S. Jacobsen Food Reviews International.
Marcel Dekker. Springer : 94— Extrusion of Foods. CRC Press. J Sci Food Agric.
Wiley Interscience. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 1 July Mattila Is this true? If not, how should we reply to such people who are misguiding the innocent people and creating doubts in their hearts and minds? We take note of your emotions in the query and your sensitivity to the superiority of the prophets over the ummat. It is important to understand what is the criteria of superiority? Superiority is not necessarily based on quantity. Surely R cannot be superior to US Dollars based on the apparent numbers.
Surely US Dollars far supersede R despite being lesser in number. In discussing the issue in reference, we advise you to contain your emotions and consider the following:. The criteria of virtue and superiority in the sight of Allah is quality and not quantity. Consider the following Hadith:.
It is clearly understood from the above hadith that a non Sahabi may spend much more than what a Sahabi spent in the path of Allah. The quantity and excess spent by a non Sahabi does not make him superior to a Sahabi. The inference that Deobandi's believe that it is possible for an ummati to surpass Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam in deeds is deduced from the statement of Hazrat Maulana Nanotwi's Rahmatullahi Alayh.
He states the following in Tehzeerun Naas:. In so far as practical deeds are concerned, "outwardly" it will appear that an Ummati may be equal and even surpasses. Understanding the term "outwardly". He performed approximately 27, fardh salah. There are many people from the ummah who have performed fardh salah for more than 15 years until over 50 years or more.
Many ummati's have performed many more haj's than Rasulullah. They performed apparently much more fardh salah than Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. However, all the fardh and nafl salahs of the entire ummat as well the fardh and nafl haj's of the entire ummat which outwardly seems to be morecan never be equivalent to the smallest deed of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaih Wasallam. The emphasis in the statement of Hazrat Nanotwi Rahimahullah is the excellence of the knowledge of the Prophets.
It is well known fact that the quality of deeds of a sincere and devoted individual is according to his depth of knowledge. Since the level of knowledge of the prophets supersedes the knowledge of the ummat, all the deeds of the ummat can never be equivalent to the smallest deed of the prophet. The smallest act of virtue of a Rasul supersedes all the acts of virtue of the ummat.