After identifying himself to the Phaeacians at the feast, Odysseus tells the story of his wanderings. Following the victory at Troy, he and his men sail to Ismarus, the stronghold of the Cicones. With apparent ease, they sack the city, kill the men, enslave the women, and enjoy a rich haul of plunder.
Odysseus advises his men to leave immediately with their riches, but they ignore his warnings. The Cicones gather reinforcements, counterattack, and eventually rout the Greeks. Odysseus and his men retreat by sea. Storms blow the ships off course, but they finally arrive at the land of the Lotus-eaters.
The inhabitants are not hostile; however, eating the lotus plant causes Odysseus' men to lose memory and all desire to return home. Odysseus barely gets them back to sea. The next stop is the land of the Cyclops, lawless one-eyed giants. One of them, Polyphemus, traps Odysseus and a scouting party in his cave. Only the Greek hero's wily plan allows escape. Readers should not confuse Odysseus' pride in identifying himself to the Phaeacian hosts with vanity.
One's name and reputation are crucial in the Homeric world. When Odysseus states that his "fame has reached the skies" 9. Reputation is of paramount importance in this culture.
But his pride in his name foreshadows Odysseus' questionable judgment in identifying himself during the escape from Polyphemus. The next four books Books deal with the hero's wanderings and are the most widely known in the epic. Odysseus does not discuss, at this point, why he was blown off course and unable to return directly to Ithaca. Phemius, the renowned Ithacan bard, outlines the tale early in The Odyssey 1. Many critics see Odysseus' wanderings as a series of trials or tests through which the hero attains a certain wisdom and prepares to be a great king as well as a great warrior.
If so, then judgment seems to be a key. If Odysseus is to survive, he must ultimately become wise as well as courageous and shrewd. The first test is against the Cicones. Some scholars suggest that Odysseus raids Ismarus because the Cicones are allies of the Trojans. Others conclude that he sacks the city simply because it is there. Certainly piracy and marauding were legitimate professions for Ithacans.
At question is not the raid but Odysseus' men's foolish disregard for his advice. Having gained victory and considerable plunder, Odysseus wants to be on his way. His men, on the other hand, drink and feast as the Cicones gather reinforcements, skilled warriors who eventually rout the Greeks.
Odysseus loses six men from each of his ships and is lucky to get away by sea. Odysseus escapes, but storms and a strong north wind drive his ships off course. As he rounds Cape Malea near Cythera, north and slightly west of Cretehe needs only to swing north by northwest miles or so to be home.
The winds drive him away. Nine days later, he reaches the land of the Lotus-eaters. Homeric geography is suspect, but some scholars place this at or near Libya. Students familiar with some of the legends of The Odyssey but new to the epic itself might be surprised to see that the section on the Lotus-eaters is only about twenty-five lines long 9.
Homer has touched on a universal theme, the lure of oblivion through drugs.This seems to my mind the fairest thing there is. But thy heart is turned to ask of my grievous woes, that I may weep and groan the more. What, then, shall I tell thee first, what last?
First now will I tell my name, that ye, too, may know it, and that I hereafter, when I have escaped from the pitiless day of doom, may be your host, though I dwell in a home that is afar. But I dwell in clear-seen Ithaca, wherein is a mountain, Neriton, covered with waving forests, conspicuous from afar; and round it lie many isles hard by one another, Dulichium, and Same, and wooded Zacynthus. Ithaca itself lies close in to the mainland the furthest toward the gloom, but the others lie apart toward the Dawn and the sun—a rugged isle, but a good nurse of young men; and for myself no other thing can I see sweeter than one's own land.
Of a truth Calypso, the beautiful goddess, sought to keep me by her in her hollow caves, yearning that I should be her husband; and in like manner Circe would fain have held me back in her halls, the guileful lady of Aeaea, yearning that I should be her husband; but they could never persuade the heart within my breast.
So true is it that naught is sweeter than a man's own land and his parents, even though it be in a rich house that he dwells afar in a foreign land away from his parents. From Ilios the wind bore me and brought me to the Cicones, to Ismarus.
There I sacked the city and slew the men; and from the city we took their wives and great store of treasure, and divided them among us, that so far as lay in me no man might go defrauded of an equal share.
Then verily I gave command that we should flee with swift foot, but the others in their great folly did not hearken. But there much wine was drunk, and many sheep they slew by the shore, and sleek kine of shambling gait. So they came in the morning, as thick as leaves or flowers spring up in their season; and then it was that an evil fate from Zeus beset us luckless men, that we might suffer woes full many.
They set their battle in array and fought by the swift ships, and each side hurled at the other with bronze-tipped spears. Now as long as it was morn and the sacred day was waxing, so long we held our ground and beat them off, though they were more than we.
But when the sun turned to the time for the unyoking of oxen, then the Cicones prevailed and routed the Achaeans, and six of my well-greaved comrades perished from each ship; but the rest of us escaped death and fate. Then the ships were driven headlong, and their sails were torn to shreds by the violence of the wind. So we lowered the sails and stowed them aboard, in fear of death, and rowed the ships hurriedly toward the land.
There for two nights and two days continuously we lay, eating our hearts for weariness and sorrow. But when now fair-tressed Dawn brought to its birth the third day, we set up the masts and hoisted the white sails, and took our seats, and the wind and the helmsmen steered the ships. And now all unscathed should I have reached my native land, but the wave and the current and the North Wind beat me back as I was rounding Malea, and drove me from my course past Cythera.
There we went on shore and drew water, and straightway my comrades took their meal by the swift ships. But when we had tasted food and drink, I sent forth some of my comrades to go and learn who the men were, who here ate bread upon the earth; two men I chose, sending with them a third as a herald.
So they went straightway and mingled with the Lotus-eaters, and the Lotus-eaters did not plan death for my comrades, but gave them of the lotus to taste.
Odyssey Study Guide: Discussion Questions & Answers
And whosoever of them ate of the honey-sweet fruit of the lotus, had no longer any wish to bring back word or to return, but there they were fain to abide among the Lotus-eaters, feeding on the lotus, and forgetful of their homeward way.
These men, therefore, I brought back perforce to the ships, weeping, and dragged them beneath the benches and bound them fast in the hollow ships; and I bade the rest of my trusty comrades to embark with speed on the swift ships, lest perchance anyone should eat of the lotus and forget his homeward way. So they went on board straightway and sat down upon the benches, and sitting well in order smote the grey sea with their oars. Neither assemblies for council have they, nor appointed laws, but they dwell on the peaks of lofty mountains in hollow caves, and each one is lawgiver to his children and his wives, and they reck nothing one of another.
Therein live wild goats innumerable, for the tread of men scares them not away, nor are hunters wont to come thither, men who endure toils in the woodland as they course over the peaks of the mountains.
Neither with flocks is it held, nor with ploughed lands, but unsown and untilled all the days it knows naught of men, but feeds the bleating goats. For the Cyclopes have at hand no ships with vermilion cheeks, nor are there ship-wrights in their land who might build them well-benched ships, which should perform all their wants, passing to the cities of other folk, as men often cross the sea in ships to visit one another—craftsmen, who would have made of this isle also a fair settlement.
For the isle is nowise poor, but would bear all things in season. Thither we sailed in, and some god guided us through the murky night; for there was no light to see, but a mist lay deep about the ships and the moon showed no light from heaven, but was shut in by clouds.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials. Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter?
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The Odyssey Summary and Analysis of Books 5-8
Product Description Standards In this guided reading, the students use Fitzgerald's translation of Homer's Odyssey to complete questions and tasks as they read. This type of active reading will aid in comprehension and retention of the text.
There are also text based-questions at the end of the passages which require longer responses. Log in. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Total Pages.
Report this Resource to TpT. Reported resources will be reviewed by our team. More from Lindsey Peterson See all 12 resources. Keep in Touch! Sign Up.The Odyssey. Plot Summary. All Symbols Food Birds. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts.
The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play. Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Sign In Sign Up. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this LitChart! Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Edition on The Odyssey can help.
Themes All Themes. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Odysseywhich you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Odysseus names himself and begins telling the story of his long travels after leaving Troy. In the beginning of the journey, he and his men sacked the city of the Cicones and carried away many spoils; Odysseus wanted to leave, but his men decided to stay and plunder and feast.
Meanwhile the Cicones called their neighbors for backup, and the expanded army killed many Achaeans before the rest escaped. Zeus sent down a hurricane, the men rested for two days, and then a North wind sent the ships in the wrong direction. The story of the Cicones is a parable about moderation. If the men had restrained their bloodlust, they could have escaped with spoils and their lives. Instead, their greed led to many deaths and in so doing foreshadows the suitors at Ithaca. The story also displays one of the stranger aspects of ancient law: though men have the right to attack and plunder other men, they should only plunder to a point: plundering excessively is dishonorable.
Active Themes. Piety, Customs, and Justice. Related Quotes with Explanations. After nine days, the ships reached the land of the Lotus Eaters. There, the crewmen that ate the fruit of lotus lost all desire to return and all memory of home — they only wanted to stay and eat lotus.
But Odysseus forced them to return to the ships, tied them to the masts, and told the remaining men to set sail. This story perfectly illustrates the connection between memory and desire: to lose the memory of a desired object — either magically or naturally — is to lose the impetus for action. Memory and Grief.Most likely written between and B.
Originally composed in the Ionic Greek dialect in dactylic hexameter most English translations use iambic pentameterThe Odysseyalongside the slightly earlier Iliad a violent account of the Trojan Warushered in a new age of Western literature. The Odyssey has been so influential that its primary theme -- the desire for home -- may be the most important one in modern narratives, used for stories as diverse as The Wizard of Oz and James Joyce's directly allusive Ulysses.
The Odyssey is also notable for its exploration of its hero's sensitive interior life, a stark contrast to the nonstop action of The Iliad. There has been fervent debate, especially since the 19th century, over the authorship of both poems.
Some scholars maintain that they are the work of multiple writers, while others believe that both are the product of a blind bard named Homer. It is now generally agreed that a singer-poet named Homer from the city of Smyrna on the western coast of Asia Minor did exist around the time of the composition of both poems, though the rest is still disputable.
One likely theory is that the illiterate Homer had memorized heroic stories that had been passed down through the ages and altered them slightly when he sang them to audiences and strummed a simple stringed instrument for musical accompaniment. Someone else then cobbled together Homer's various narratives and wrote down first The Iliadthen The Odysseymost likely on a papyrus scroll. The stories were then copied, and undoubtedly evolved, over time, helping explain particularly the uneven final third of T he Odyssey.
To buy them time between improvisations, the singer-poets repeated stories such as that of Agamemnon's murder in The Odyssey and used recurring epithets -- pithy tags attached to characters "grey-eyed Athena ," "swift-footed Achilles" -- and epic or Homeric similes, or repetitive poetic comparisons "rosy-fingered Dawn," "the wine-dark sea".
Who are the main characters of book 9 odyssey. The Odyssey. Although we see these values, we must also recognize the tremendous double standard between genders at play here. Why does the author have Polyphemus stop the large ram Odysseus is hiding under and talk to the sheep?
What effect does this have on the reader? They stay in their ram-carriages until morning, when Polyphemus lets the rams pass through the entrance. Odysseus' ram, the leader, goes last, and Polyphemus asks why it is not in its customary leading position. I thought Odysseus was pretty The Odyssey study guide contains a biography of Homer, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
The Odyssey essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Odyssey by Homer. Remember me. Forgot your password?Would the Iliad and the Odyssey be appropriate for a grader, who is a big fan of mythology and very Intelligent?
I, of course, mean a translated version of the book. I would never give the original Greek text to someone, unless they were in graduate school learning Greek or Greek literature. As for the content of the book, I am not worried. The person has already read hundreds of mythological stories which contain the same subject matter. I remember I read these two poems in Jr. High or early High School, but I know that much of what I read in high school is now being taught in middle school. There are many different translations.
Just don't get a dumbed-down "kids' translation"; you sound too intelligent for one of those. Ask your school librarian -- they will be able to suggest a good one. Trending News. Hailey Bieber endorses Biden — while dad backs Trump. Trump turns power of state against his political rivals.
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Fauci: Trump ad takes my words out of context. Nature A. Does anyone know what school's label the Iliad and the Odyssey as? Thank you! Update: To make things a little more clear in response to some of the answers I have received. All I am worried about is if the reading would be too hard for a fourth or fifth grader. Because of that reason I am unsure of what the true reading level is for the poems.
Thank you all for your responses so far, I do appreciate any help! Answer Save. In it's original language it's post-graduate level if that helps.Athena pleads to the gods and Zeus at Mount Olympus on behalf of the imprisoned Odysseus and Telemachuswho is in danger of being ambushed. Zeus tells her to protect Telemachus, and sends Hermes to order Calypso to release her prisoner - although Odysseus must first sail alone on a raft to Skheria, where he will receive lavish gifts from the Phaeacians before returning home in a proper ship.
Hermes races to Calypso's beautiful island. He gives the goddess Zeus' command. She reluctantly agrees, but not before pointing out that male gods are allowed to take mortal lovers while female ones are not, and informs the weeping Odysseus of the new plans. He is suspicious of her sudden help and does not think a raft will be sufficient for the ocean, but she assures him there is no subterfuge.
They have dinner, and Calypso tries to convince him that she is better than his mortal wife. Odysseus flatters her but insists he longs for home. They sleep together, as they do every night. With Calypso's help, Odysseus makes his raft over the next four days and, after receiving some gifts and a magical breeze, he leaves on the fifth day. He sails for 17 more days until he nears Skheria, but Poseidon sees him and realizes the gods have freed him.
He conjures a mighty storm, and Odysseus believes he will drown as he is tossed around and thrown underwater. The goddess Ino rescues him with her veil. Odysseus thinks it may be another trick, but after his raft breaks apart, he takes her veil and swims. Athena calms the storm, and Odysseus swims for two days until he nears shore. But sharp rocks surround it, and he fears dying on them in the rough surf. Athena instructs him to grab hold of an oncoming rock-ledge; he does, tearing the skin on his hands.
After he is pulled underwater, he finds a calm river and finally collapses on land. Knowing the river area will be too cold at night, he finds a bed of leaves in a nearby forest - though he may be easy prey for wild animals - and goes to sleep.
Seduction and infidelity take prominence in the beginning of the book, as Calypso makes a last-ditch attempt to convince Odysseus to stay with her.